Tomorrow's Teaching and Learning
The posting below is a nice summary of various learning theories. It is from Chapter 3 – Delivering Education and Training in the book The Certificate in Education and Training, by Ann Gravells and Susan Simpson. Published by Sage Publishing Company. www.sagepublishing.com © Ann Gravells 2014. Copyright by Ann Gravells and Susan Simpson. First published by Learning Matters SAGE 2014. All rights reserved. Reprinted with permission.
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Tomorrow’s Teaching and Learning
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Teaching and Learning Theories
There are many different theories regarding the way people learn. This section will very briefly explore some of them (in alphabetical order), which you might like to research further and try out with your own learners. However, don’t get too concerned thinking you must teach in a certain way because a theorist says so. What works with one group or individual learner might not work with another. You might find at first you are teaching the way you were taught at school, college or university. It might have suited you at the time, or it might have had a detrimental effect. Don’t be afraid to try something different and step out of your comfort zone. You will need to find out through experience what works and what doesn’t work with your learners.
Behaviorism assumes a learner is essentially passive, and will be shaped through positive or negative reinforcement. Learning is therefore defined as a change in behavior. Skinner (1974) believed that behavior is a function of its consequences, i.e. learners will repeat the desired behavior if positive reinforcement is given. The behavior should not be repeated if negative feedback is given. Giving immediate feedback, whether positive or negative, should enable your learners to behave in a certain way. Positive reinforcement or rewards can include verbal feedback such as That’s great, you’ve produced that document without any errors or You’re certainly getting on well with that task, through to more tangible rewards such as a certificate at the end of the programme, or a promotion or pay rise at work.
Cognitivism focuses on what happens in the mind such as thinking and problem-solving. New knowledge is built upon prior knowledge and learners need active participation in order to learn. Changes in behavior are observed, but only as an indication of what is taking place in the learner’s mind. Cognitivism uses the metaphor of the mind as a computer: information comes in, is processed, and learning takes place.
Constructivism is about learning being an active, contextualized process of constructing knowledge rather than acquiring it. The learner brings past experiences and cultural factors to a current situation and each person has a different interpretation and construction of the knowledge process.
Vygotsky’s (1978) theory is one of the foundations of constructivism. It asserts three major themes.
1. Social interaction plays a fundamental role in the process of cognitive development. Vygotsky felt social learning precedes development and stated: Every function in the child’s cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological) (Vygotsky, 1978 page 57).
2. The More Knowledgeable Other (MKO). The MKO refers to anyone who has a better understanding or a higher ability level than the learner, with respect to a particular task, process, or concept. The MKO is normally the teacher, or an older adult, but the MKO could also be a peer, a younger person, or even information from the internet.
3. The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). The ZPD is the distance between a learner’s ability to perform a task under adult guidance and/or with peer collaboration and their ability to solve the problem independently. According to Vygotzky, learning occurs in this zone.
Think of these themes as:
1. what the learner can do
2. what the learner can do with help from others
3. what the learner can’t do yet but will attempt to do
Experiential learning is about the learner experiencing things for themselves and learning from them. Kolb (1984) proposed a four stage model known as the experiential learning cycle. It is a way by which people can understand their experiences and, as a result, modify their behavior. It is based on the idea that the more often a learner reflects on a task, the more often they have the opportunity to modify and refine their efforts. The process of learning can begin at any stage and is continuous, i.e. there is no limit to the number of cycles which can be made in a learning situation. This theory suggests that without reflection, people would continue to repeat their mistakes.
* Concrete experience is about experiencing or immersing yourself in the task and is the first stage in which a person simply carries out the task assigned. This is the doing stage.
* Observation and reflection involve stepping back from the task and reviewing what has been done and experienced. Your values, attitudes and beliefs can influence your thinking at this stage. This is the stage of thinking about what you have done.
* Abstract conceptualization involves interpreting the events that have been carried out and making sense of them. This is the stage of planning how you will do it differently.
* Active experimentation enables you to take the new learning and predict what is likely to happen next or what actions should be taken to refine the way the task is done again. This is the redoing stage based upon experience and reflection.
Humanism is an approach that believes learning is seen as a personal act to fulfill potential. Humanists believe that it is necessary to study a person as a whole, particularly as they grow and develop over their lifetime. Rogers (1983) and others developed the theory of facilitative learning based on a belief that people have a natural human eagerness to learn and that learning involves changing your own concept of yourself. This theory suggests that learning will take place if the person delivering it acts as a facilitator. The facilitator should establish an atmosphere in which her learners feel comfortable, are able to discuss new ideas and learn from their mistakes, as long as they are not threatened by external factors.
Pedagogy and andragogy
Formal teaching is known as pedagogy, where the teacher directs all the learning. Informal teaching is known as andragogy, where the learner is the focus, for example, via group work and discussions. Pedagogy does not always allow for individual knowledge to be taken into account and often focuses on teaching the same topic at the same time to all learners. Knowles et al. (2005) initially defined andragogy as the art and science of helping adults learn. An andragogical approach places more emphasis on what the learner is doing. You can include your learners’ experiences and knowledge by involving them whenever possible, and building upon what they already know and what interests them. Learners can also learn from their peers’ knowledge and experiences, as well as from you.
John Dewey (1859-1952) believed that formal schooling was falling short of its potential. He emphasized facilitating learning through promoting various activities rather than by using a traditional teacher-focused method. He believed that learners learnt more from guided experiences than from authoritarian instruction. He subscribed to a pragmatist theory which placed the learner as the focus rather than the teacher. Dewey argued that learning is life, not just preparation for life. Using different delivery approaches, combined with practical activities, will help reach the different learning preferences of the individuals you are teaching.
Laird (1985) suggests that learning occurs when the senses of sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste are stimulated. This is easy if you are teaching a practical session, but not so if you are teaching a theoretical subject. However, if you are willing to try something different, you can make your sessions really interesting and memorable. Whenever possible, link theory to practice, and use practical activities based around the subject and the areas of interest of your learners. If you can make your session fun and interesting, relating to all the senses, it will help your learners remember the topics better. Don’t forget two other senses you can use as a teacher: a sense of humor and common sense.
Research the theories explained here and compare and contrast them. Find out what other relevant theories there are. Use textbooks and journals, or key the words ‘learning theories’ into an internet search engine.
Knowles, M, Holten III, E and Swanson, R (2005) The Adult Learner (6th ed.). Oxford: Butterworth-Heineman.
Kolb, DA (1984) Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Laird, D (1985) Approaches to Training and Development. Harlow: Addison Wesley.
Rogers, CR (1983) Freedom to Learn for the 80s. Columbus, OH: Charles Merrill.
Skinner, BF (1974) About Behaviorism. San Francisco, CA: Knopf.
Vygotsky, LS (1978) Mind and Society: The Development of Higher Mental Processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.